The linkage ‘tween cultural crises in Nigeria in copulation to how the desegregation of divers heathen groups in Nigeria can be attained was the focusing of this sketch. The desegregation of Nigeria is an matter at boil that necessarily to be desperately and conjointly tackled by the Nigerian governance and so Nigerians; this stirred my stake in the cogitation.

Inquiries were made into the effects of heathen crises on the desegregation of Nigeria. Clamber for heathen say-so, leading problems, imagination ascendancy, spiritual differences and deathless pursue ability, among others, characterized the egress of ethnical crisis in Nigeria.

This discipline held that the major campaign of annihilation in Nigeria could be joined to the sponsor and eternal cultural crisis which successively leads to political and economical impairment as no meaningful ontogenesis could hap in a crises impelled company and the existent ones are been ruined.


Nigeria is made up of dissimilar ethnical units. In literal fact, it is a multiethnic guild. According to Gaye (1999) the consolidation trouble in Nigeria is potential one of the almost complicated in the earth.

Nigeria is Africa’s well-nigh populated land with o’er 200 l heathenish groups on a acreage of 923,768 sq km (2008 Mongobay humankind statistics) with o’er cxl billion universe, none of the tercet master heathen groups which are the Hausa, Yoruba and Igbo constitutes a bulk of the universe (Gaye 1999). With ended d 20 languages spoken ( Ethnologue 2009) it is of no uncertainty that Nigeria is rightfully a multiethnic Commonwealth.

Nigeria was created during the British compound formula. It was naturalized in m nine-spot century 14 when Overlord Fredrick Lugard (the Beginning Regulator Oecumenical) coupled the two British protectorates of Northerly and Southerly Nigeria and the pate dependency of Lagos as a one entity in otc to elevate i and developing.

Nigeria gained independency in October m ix 100 lx and had since know lots of Military interference in its political affairs. Since the stream counter to polite normal in May 1999, thither had been complete cl ethno-religious conflicts resulting in enormous passing of lives and properties (Eliagwu 2004).

Spiritual rank in Nigeria is powerfully level to ethnicity. Antediluvian Nigeria comprises of many religions which are skilful by unlike heathen groups, but all this religions had since been overpowered by Islam and Christianity with solitary a few practicing the Traditional Nigerian Faith. According to the Nigeria nosecount account (2003); 50.4% of Nigerian universe praxis Islam, 48.2% practise Christianity piece 1.4% recitation the Traditional Nigerian faith. In damage of major ethnic-religious memberships Islam primarily dominates the Northerly (Hausa) office of Nigeria; Christianity is rife in the Southerly (Yoruba and Igbo) portion of Nigeria patch in the Sw thither is no star faith.

According to Emenloye (2011), thither is commonly an inseparable linkage betwixt heathen and spiritual conflicts in a multiethnic companionship such as Nigeria where ideals of federalism and constitutionalism are hush in changeover. Conflicts as a solvent of ethno-religious tensions are not new in Nigeria, but the unceasing occurrent makes it an exit that requires pressing attending if Nigeria is to rest structured as a Commonwealth.

Ideally; the life of confederacy, nationalism and patriotism is expected to nullification all pagan, tribal or spiritual tie of Nigerians. Regrettably, this is not the vitrine as nearly conflicts were based on pagan or spiritual individuality (Emenloye 2011).

It is specially desirable of notation that the act of such conflicts in late days is intelligibly lots higher than those that had occurred in the late account of the commonwealth (Oke Ogunde, 2002).

According to Nwaobi Godwin (2009), this ethno-religious disunity has malformed, complicated and to a big extent hindered every developmental exertion undertaken by politics. This was what prompting Martin Ike (2009) to postulate that Nigeria sweat at achieving internal desegregation birth persist mostly unrealised.

Command OF Explore Job

The compounding of ethnicity with faith had since put Nigeria into agitation. Since its independency in 1960, Nigeria has struggled with the challenges of managing its spiritual and political differences. The major run of Nigeria’s power to oversee this variety and advertise interior desegregation has been ethno-religious conflicts and thither crushing effects on the Nigerian polity (Emeye 2011).

The construct of ethnicity and faith cannot be detached in the account of societal conflicts but at this end it is significant to fork the two lyric ethnicity and faith in over-the-counter to be capable to ghost the problems rachis to the roots so as to be able-bodied to get a crystalise apprehension of the search problems. Though amalgamate unitedly and inter-woven, one mustiness notation that not all cultural motivated crises in the Nigerian polity has spiritual undercurrent and not all spiritual motivated crises as an ethnical tinge though they generally cum adjacent.

Problems of heathen conflicts in the Nigerian polity.

E’er since Nigeria attained independency from the British dependency in 1960, The Country had since been battling with integrating as a outcome of inter-ethnic cum spiritual conflicts. Volition it so be rightfulness to situate that the compound beingness of Britain in Nigeria and the violence associated with colonialism joined the entity called Nigeria earlier independency? It is desirable of banknote that the Biafra conflicts which well-nigh shared the state started in m 9 c threescore septenary which is a few age afterwards independency. The conflicts lasted for well-nigh 3years because the easterly states attempted to escape from Nigeria.

To be actual, well-nigh of the heathen conflicts which fad Nigeria nowadays could be traced to the events which took situation spell Nigeria was below the compound pattern of Britain. Notwithstanding, Nigeria hush ignorantly continued to pace that way trough this nowadays day.

It is crucial to billet that the entity called Nigeria does not subsist earlier colonialism, what existed was many dissimilar disconnected communities and tribes in which about of their territories eve over-lapsed the geographic soil of the confront day Nigeria. The dissimilar heathenish groups which had dissimilar beliefs, cultures, spiritual practices and languages where all brought unitedly by Britain to shape a commonwealth without badly considering the characteristics of these groups and how they could peacefully co-exist. These pagan nationalities on the otc handwriting do not licitly see themselves as a citizen of one joined Nigeria but as that of whichever ethnical groups they start. So from root the loyal heart required to run the country forwards was confused because the heathenish groups ne’er agreed and were not volition to co-exist. So e’er since abaft independency in 1960, Nigeria had been battling to meet dissimilar inter-ethnic crises arising as a resultant of nerve-wracking to forcefully co-exist unitedly as one indivisible entity as it was accomplished in 1000 ix 100 xiv ahead independency. These seems undoable, due to the incorrect founding on which Nigeria was effected as about cultural groups quieten hope to lam from the confront entity called Nigeria.

Notwithstanding, the economy of Nigeria is another contributory element to shop heathenish crises. The economy introduced to Nigeria from origination was not in-line with the political organization of a nation with such diachronic developments as Nigeria. The capitalistic economy that was introduced creates highschool floor of rivalry and strives for economical relevancy among the consolidated regions. Every soul since so and cashbox deliver day, endeavour for the developing of its own attached area not the developing of a joined Nigeria, consequently sectionalization became advance worn on the lines of ethnicity.

Pip calm, the e’er un-sincere and diagonal unceasing intercession of the westerly humanity due to their own selfish determined involvement, in the political-economic affairs of Nigeria had continually led to cypher but topsy-turvyness among the Nigerian ethnical groups. Nigeria as a autonomous commonwealth inevitably no international encumbrance, and should be mugwump to run its affairs in the shipway and manners it deems fit. Nigeria is a country with many mineral resources similar crude, which is requisite by highly-developed nations to exist. The favors and especial discourse in footing of loans, aids and grants to one area because of what they pedestal to see page addition from such regions had continued to set Nigeria cultural groups against one another. A goodness reference is the invariable and deathless concern of the westerly powers in the oil fertile south-south, Niger-delta part of Nigeria due to its cornucopia in crude-oil and the unlimited nonperformance of Northerly Nigeria which does not own such critical mineral resources they motive. Always whenever thither are crises in these regions, the westerly powers takes sides and this tends to undertake the re-occurrence and sustain such crisis.

Further-more, the panache of organization imposed on Nigeria was altogether indispose for a multiethnic guild ilk Nigeria. According to Katy, (2008) Britain imposed a west-minister manner of regime which was whole unlike from the shipway the various heathenish groups antecedently governed themselves. This included the creation of political parties; it is far-famed that assorted parties below the British regulation were oftentimes made up of members of particular tribes and this construct live trough engagement in Nigeria as political parties are formed on the footing of ethnicity and not internal involvement. Nigeria presently has concluded lx dissimilar political parties. During colonialism, it is authoritative to line that political parties and groups scorn their dissimilar aims and objectives erstwhile divided a plebeian finish: which is to get self-reliance from Britain. This became their solitary home involvement and awhile, tribes were joined nether a usual aim. Erst independency was gained it became manifestly unclutter that Nigeria was not a rude commonwealth; no wonderment Nigeria had to fight with civic war from 1967-1970. The arrangement in position was not equipt to bargain with such expectant total of pagan groups. Government trough engagement in Nigeria is foundation on ethnicity, rather of the parties meeting to parcel green aim, they all step the track of regionalism. The born rescript of regions, sectionalization on tribal lines with apiece pagan groups nisus for political-economic relevancy and transcendence had continually termination to perpetual conflicts.

In late age, since the counter to popular pattern in May 1999, cultural crises in Nigeria had been a more never-ending phenomenon and had since been inevitable due to the profitability affiliated to government and commonwealth in Nigeria. To be actual Nigerian political scheme and political offices are too profitable for any ethnos not to endeavour for mightiness potency and acknowledgement.

Nigeria practices federalism in scripted but not in its lawful setting, the Federal Authorities oversees the integral resources and regulates the economical affairs of the Country piece resources are been distributed to the states and local councils on a monthly fundament. The political elites of apiece ethnos had since aspect restraint of the cardinal as an robotlike way to egotistically enriched themselves and peradventure besides amend the support standards of the mass of their community. Apiece ethnos turbulently endeavor grueling to be in the region of ability, to be capable to baffle home affairs at the core and are not uncoerced to settee for anything less thereby qualification government a "do or die" amour.

Apiece area in Nigeria bear their own direful groups: the Odua citizenry’s intercourse (o.p.c) fight for the involvement of the westward, Militants so called "exemption fighters" in the eastward and south-south and the nearly dread one latterly labeled a fto by the joined states, which is too presently forbidding the ace and peaceable co-existence of the Country is the "Boko-haram sects" in the Northerly. This faction is responsible the late bombardment of the United-Nations menage in Nigeria besides as early late insurgents in the land. The sects had since invariably and are not set to quit in terrorizing the oneness of Nigeria until the south-south part presently in clutches of the federal powerfulness releases it to the Northwards, so likewise are former regions clamor for this like superpower.

The challenges of Nigeria regarding desegregation are that Nigerians no thirster survey Nigeria as their own entity. The sentience of nationalism required to join and firm racecourse developments in the state had been yearn helpless. According to Katy, (2008) a Country cannot be created by plainly draftsmanship of lines on a map, it mustiness be to roughly extent a lifelike intersection of the i of its universe.

Problems of spiritual conflicts in the Nigerian polity:

Spiritual conflicts are as old as pagan conflicts. Faith is a two-bagger stinging steel which could service as an tool of mixer desegregation or assist as a motive for fury ( Maregere 2011). With interminable spiritual cum ethnical conflicts in the Nigerian polity, faith has served more as an cat’s-paw and need for fury than for societal harmoniousness. Ended the age the kinship ‘tween pagan and spiritual groups had adult worsened. Faith in Nigeria had get a dissentious subject that creates a development dispute flashpoint (shadrack 2001). A abbreviated psychoanalysis of the backdrop reasons bum those spiritual conflicts in Nigeria testament service the use of this enquiry and likewise produce a wagerer sympathy of the spot.

Spiritual intolerance, fanatics and extremism is the groundwork of spiritual crises on which former causes of spiritual force remainder upon. This implies the rigorous respect and fidelity to the doctrines of a faith. Oftentimes meter’s modernisation is been victimized to de-escalate pilot spiritual teachings to encompasses intolerance. This involves the unrepentant and diagonal veneration to ones opinions and prejudices particularly the exposition of intolerance and hate towards persons of differing beliefs (baird and rosenbaum 1999). According to Abdul Balogun (1988:166) spiritual intolerance is the aggression towards over-the-counter religions likewise as the unfitness of spiritual adherents to concord ‘tween truth principles and virtual aspects of a faith.

Yet, the improper biblical interpretations by roughly selfish and shallow-minded spiritual leadership according to Ahmad (2008) gives wrongfulness notion around otc religions because of the improper spiritual predilection been wedged on the spiritual congregation. This shuffle citizenry to be ill-used indirectly for vehemence without well-educated they are been exploited, particularly when spiritual leadership and Nigerian political elites miss the exponent and backup to amplification admittance to something they skin nether the fantasm of faith (Usman 1987).

Spiritual authorization, scramble for relevancy and transcendency among spiritual groups is another trouble of spiritual conflicts in Nigeria.

The creation of Shariah ism in approximately Nigeria Muslim populated states had invariably been forcefully spurned by former spiritual groups. The Islamist claimed that the creation of Shariah principles in the states testament put a stoppage to bad acts such as putrescence, ravishment, intoxicant intake, snatch, bad fertilization and former malefic things which are believed to be through by former spiritual congregation in the states. The governments mat that such behaviors bequeath contaminate the minds of Islamic fold whose universe dominates the states. This met blotto underground by early spiritual fold who title that it is an endeavour to number Nigeria into an Islamic land and put a blockage to former religions, this successively twinkle up spiritual conflicts in Nigeria.

The inordinate statements and publications by spiritual elites in the media had invariably flicker up everlasting conflicts among dissimilar spiritual groups who smell insulted by such publications and adversely respond angrily. Lesson of such conflicts occurred in g nine-spot 100 xc 9 as a solution of the knowing wrongfulness spelling of an Islamic countersign on the material of a Muslim fold by a cut in Kano land Nigeria. The tailor-make distant two alphabets from the news spelling; meantime the two letters he omitted from the intelligence changed the import of the parole which is now taken as an abuse to Muslims. this made the Muslims raging as it after stone-broke out into a life-threatening spiritual conflicts. Another dear representative is the spiritual dispute that happened in Nigeria in two m one a termination of a gossip in the media by an disbeliever regarding Islam as a faith of "pieces" rather of "pacification" This command is an abuse, bad and excessive. The Islamic youths and close were roiled and this lead-in to conflicts intrinsically statements and publications had forever led to spiritual conflicts in Nigeria.

The want of punishments for yesteryear offenders who had purposely caused topsy-turvydom among spiritual groups in Nigeria had always brought approximately conflicts. The spiritual groups try retaliation by themselves for the killings and indemnification through to them by early spiritual groups. The recommendations of premature examine committees rig by politics are not been enforced. This makes it looks as if offenders testament go unpunished and it encourages more conflicts in the nation.

The unification of government with faith by nearly political actors in Nigeria is another trouble. Well-nigh multiplication during elections, contesters of diverse political offices tends to veil below spiritual tenets to get their votes which makes them to be firm to such spiritual groups when they annoy powerfulness. They so postulate in spiritual activities and this brings hate among spiritual groups as the opposite nominee volition obliterate below another spiritual radical during the succeeding elections. The begrime gage of government is been brought into faith and this further conflicts.


To this extent it becomes imperative to enquire into the footing of ethno-religious crisis and how lawful nation-hood can be attained in Nigeria via the followers enquiry questions:

Why has ethno-religious fight impact consolidation in Nigeria?

Why has ethno-religious kinship exasperate in Nigeria?

How has the Nigerian regime been devising efforts to re-integrate Nigeria?


This enquiry aims to suggestion solutions to the problems confronting Nigeria desegregation. This work so basically seeks to canvas how ethno-religious conflicts suffer led to the annihilation of Nigeria.

This sour seeks to analyse and measure ethno-religious conflicts in Nigeria, in otc to regulate the extent of their relevancy and irrelevancy to the job of Nigeria’s desegregation. Notwithstanding vehemence volition be set on determination out the posture of the governments towards preventing never-ending ethno-religious conflicts likewise as the scheme governance adopts in tackling the distant causes of versatile ethnical or spiritual indistinguishability motivated crisis in the state in over-the-counter to mate i.e. annihilate futurity occurrences.

More so, this cogitation leave canvass the efforts of administration in re-integrating Nigeria.

The import of this sketch cannot be under-estimated as attempts volition be made to disclose recommendations to the Nigerian politics, which if adoptive may found a amend peaceable co-existence among the various heathenish and spiritual groups in Nigeria, aimed at re-awaken the awareness of home ace.

On a last tone this inquiry seeks to bestow to the academician reality as the problems clogging desegregation in countries with gamy grade of multi-ethnicity and spiritual beliefs ilk Nigeria leave be explored.

Enquiry METHOD

The nature of this enquiry leave be qualitative, in otc to jolly fulfill the job commence therein bailiwick. According to Myers (1997), it is an inducive coming of gaining deeper agreement of a societal and ethnical phenomenon. Qualitative inquiry is based on assemblage rich savvy and noesis approximately homo behaviors, the foundational reasons arse such behaviors and deciding. The investigator oftentimes infers domain on constructivist perspectives (Creswell, 2003). This mannequin of enquiry is requirement therein work because it leave inquire "why and how" the conflicts bechance, not scarce where, what and when. It involves the use of generalization by observant information’s in former to produce a generality which leave excuse the relationships ‘tween the variables discovered. ( Schriver 2001)

This sketch leave take the use of diachronic and subject psychoanalysis, to see facts and win encourage insights since the field seeks to raise the apprehension of how heathenish conflicts disintegrates Nigeria and too aims to commend potential solutions aim at resolution the integrating trouble in Nigeria.

Method of information compendium

This discipline would shuffling use of petty information appeal. The explore volition be stand on reappraisal from respective deeds. Sources of information testament admit:

Functionary documents: Wish communiqués, correspondences, governing policies and external agendas.

Newsprint and media: The reports, speeches, figures, cyberspace and document delivered by stake-holders testament be victimized, but the cyberspace volition be discreetly put-upon to deflect diagonal as events leave be checkered from unlike sources in early to corroborate its genuineness.

Publications: In manakin of books, dissertation and clause in journals. All the data collected testament be canvass in a taxonomic way so it deals with composite societal issues.

All the entropy collected bequeath be scripted kill and analyse consistently, thus it deals with composite mixer issues.

. This case of inquiry does not implement its rendering in numbers rather it is carried out done optical information display in the mannequin of maps, photographs and diagrams indicating how ideas are conveyed and associate all the workings inside the fabric of the substance.

Method of information psychoanalysis:

According to Marshal and Rossman (1989) Diachronic psychoanalysis volition be utilitarian in obtaining ground and noesis of late unexamined areas and re-examining questions for which answers are not as definite as craved.

Information would be taken done diachronic and subject psychoanalysis. The psychoanalysis bequeath be through victimization speeches, textbook books, insurance statements, journals, local and outside magazines, net, articles, federal governance reports, and communiqués etc.. The psychoanalysis testament investigate the roots and groundwork of heathen and spiritual crises in Nigeria, how such crisis had threatened the desegregation of Nigeria as a country, the kinship ‘tween pagan and spiritual crises, also as check the efforts of authorities in re-integrating Nigeria. The diachronic psychoanalysis testament pave way in acquiring a crystallise agreement of why conflicts occurred in the yesteryear, advance around certainty of the facts, ground the reasons and effects betwixt those facts so that one can interpret the relationships ‘tween variables which leave service in acquiring solutions to the problems of this inquiry.


The theories of heathen individuality conflicts in political literatures are the possibility of Primordialism, Instrumentalism and possibility of Sociable Constructivism. These theories are victimised to excuse cultural conflicts (Esman1994). The aboriginal’s possibility better fits into the conflicts berth in Nigeria and that of over-the-counter nations with multi heathenish groups as it brings to our cognition how deviation in ethnical identities constantly results to crises. Nevertheless the musician and mixer constructivist views volition be victimized to clog the horizon of the aboriginal’s in the shipway they excogitate on the Nigerian struggle place.

This model focuses on the primordialism hypothesis of conflicts.

The primordialism hypothesis of conflicts can be traced to the philosophic ideas of German Romanism especially in the plant of Johan Gottlied Fichte,(1792) and Johan Gottfried Herdsman, (1792) it was popularly propounded by Donald Horowitz.(1996) Primordialism in coition to ethnicity as posited by Fichte and Herdsman (1792) is that cultural groups and nationalities live because thither are traditions of beliefs and execute towards primeval objects such as biologic factors and territorial locations. Primaeval’s are of the survey that ethnical individuality is frozen erst it is constructed; this conception effected that conflict in impost manikin the footing for internal disunity in about multiethnic nations. Donald Horowitz (1985) and Steven Grosby (1994) posits that heathen factions leave do anything to preserves and protect the words, beliefs, district, scope and cultures against international forces; in a competitory gild, threats and gumption of risk unremarkably meets firm immunity which brings engagement. primordialism cadaver influential in identifying the potency of cultural ties and peoples loyalty to the ethnical alliances of their own quick pagan groups. Primeval’s believes that an unreconcilable departure due to divers preference and ethnic setting causes the fright that begets battle. To the aboriginal, engagement experient during the Nigerian polite war in 1000 ennead c threescore sevener and early heathen conflicts was undisputedly due to divergence in norms, cultures, traditions, backgrounds and beliefs which brings rivalries betwixt ethnical groups.

The possibility of instrumentalism therein model is reconciliation the primal’s possibility in the scene of leading pursuit in cultural conflicts as it touches approximately aspects in the Nigerian battle position. Instrumentalism became salient in Sixties and 70s in the deeds of Anthony Metalworker. It is primarily on cultural perseveration as an efficacious thawing gunpoint to cultural issues. This possibility focussed on the actions of community and regional leadership who secondhand their cultural groups as locate of batch militarisation in competing for laterality, ability and resources. Such leadership fell nether the shadows of ethnicity to brain-wash and set thither subordinates against former heathenish wash in otc to agnise thither soul goals. The Player believes that if ethnicity is not viewed as implemental identities which are way to a special end thither bequeath be no crisis, they’re of the post that thither is more to pagan crises otherwise relevancy. A commodity representative is around leadership of the Niger-delta realm in Nigeria who sponsored combativeness groups to terrify otc heathen groups and the land escaped spell thither major aim is to profit restraint of crude-oil in the ar.

Likewise load-bearing the Primeval’s possibility therein fabric is the possibility of sociable constructivism which was formalised by Denim Piaget (1975) done the fitting and absorption principles. Sociable constructivism scene heathen crises fundament on the involuntariness of cultural groups to adapt and ingest apiece otc’s principles. According to Dungaree (1975) Heathenish groups cannot incorporate until they are authentically set to chemise cause for one another by volition to oblige the full and horrible of apiece former, and are too cook to absorb apiece former’s principles, beliefs and mode. Denim believes that if the components of this possibility could be applied by pagan groups so heathenish conflicts power no yearner hap perpetually.

The primordialism hypothesis is the major possibility of this fabric patch mixer constructivism and instrumentalism hypothesis tends to counterpoise and back-up the major model. All these views tack punter explains the indebt grounds arse ethno-religious conflicts among the terminated cc 50 heathenish groups in Nigeria.